6 Other Emissions & On-road

Since September 2014 the Euro 6 emission limit has applied for new-vehicle type approvals, and since September 2015 it has been mandatory for all new vehicle sales and registrations. In 2015, about 59% of all new sales were Euro 6 vehicles (Fig. 6-1).

The progression from Euro 3 to Euro 6 resulted in significantly lower emission limits. Emissions, as measured over the NEDC test cycle, are generally in compliance with these limits. However, on-road measured nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions have not decreased to the same extent (Franco et al., 2014; Carslaw et al., 2011). For fuel consumption and CO2, a similar pattern is seen, with a discrepancy between laboratory and on-road fuel consumption of around 40% (Tietge et al., 2015). An analysis of the underlying reasons for the growing gap suggests that increasing exploitation of tolerances and flexibilities in laboratory testing is the main driver of this development (ElementEnergy and ICCT, 2015).