4 Technologies

Diesels make up a large share of the passenger car market in the EU; in 2015, 52% of all newly registered cars were powered by diesel engines. As ever, there is significant variation among Member States. Belgium, France, and Spain have diesel take-up rates close to 60%, while in the Netherlands the rate is much lower, 29% (Fig. 4-1). Diesel tends to be the preferred fuel for larger segments, while for mini/small and sport vehicles gasoline dominates (Fig. 4-9).

The market share of hybrid-electric vehicles remains stable, at 1.5% of all new car sales in the EU in 2015. In the Netherlands (3.3%) and France (2.2%) hybrid vehicles make up a much larger share than in the rest of EU Member States, though fewer hybrid vehicles were sold in the Netherlands in 2015 than in previous years, due to a change in the national vehicle taxation scheme (Fig. 4-2). For Toyota, more than one-fourth of all new vehicles sold in the EU are hybrid-electric (Fig. 4-6).

One striking feature of the European vehicle market over the last decade is the sharp increase in market share of passenger cars using gasoline direct injection (GDI) to obtain greater efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. Overall market share of GDI vehicles increased sharply beginning in 2008, and is estimated at around 38% in 2015. Especially for the premium brands, GDI engines account for the majority of all gasoline vehicle sales in that time frame. For an accurate comparison of the data, it should be noted that many of the early GDI vehicles limited operation to homogeneous charge only, whereas more complex designs introduced later also allow for stratified charge, with greater efficiency and more CO2 reduction benefit (Fig. 4-14).